Digital

"Arduino boards contain a multichannel, 10-bit analog to digital converter."

So, what happens when we put a voltage accross two pins of the arduino?

What's a bit?

"Arduino boards contain a multichannel, 10-bit analog to digital converter."

This device generates a reference signal (in a step-like fashion). When it equals the input, it registers the digital value.

Arduino board have a similar method known as Successive Approximation ADC

What we measure

We're measuring bits.

Signal vs. Noise

A quick calc: $$\frac{1024 \; \textrm{bits}}{5 \; \textrm{V}} = 204.8 \; \textrm{bits/V}$$ or, more useful would be how many Volts per bit: $$\frac{5 \; \textrm{V}}{1024 \; \textrm{bits}} = 0.00488281 \; \textrm{V/bit} \approx 5 \; \textrm{mV}/\; \textrm{bit}$$

Options?

Improve your instrumentation ($) Reduce the environmental noise in your experiment ($ and Brains)

Do some math (just brains)

Math

Averaging (or smoothing)

demo